Gender Discrimination on Child Marriage in Indonesia: A Quantitative Research Using Bootstrap Approach

  • Ade Dedi Rohayana Institut Agama Islam Negeri Pekalongan

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to analyze gender discrimination in child marriage in Indonesia. The discrimination is based on early marriage, namely Indonesian youth aged 20-24 years who have been married before the age of 19 years. There are two main factors used, namely gender and age groups. The age group represents the age at first marriage for Indonesian youth who are categorized as early marriage, namely the group aged less than 15 years and aged in the group 16-18 years. This study applies a bootstrap approach to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) due to the failure of the initial assumption tests on the original data. The analysis results show there are significant differences between male and female youth in the percentage of child marriage cases. Gender inequality is indicated based on the finding that young women are found to be four times more vulnerable to being trapped in child marriage than boys. In addition, the results of the analysis also indicate that young women are easier to get trapped in child marriage practices for both age groups. Furthermore, the results of the analysis also indicate that young women are more prone to be involved in child marriage when they are in the 16-18 year group.

References

Alma, O. G. (2011). Comparison of robust regression methods in linear regression. International Journal Contemporary Mathematical Sciences, 6(9), 409−421. http://www.m-hikari.com/ijcms-2011/9-12-2011/almaIJCMS9-12-2011.pdf

Arthur, A., Earle, A., Raub, A., Vincent, I., Atabay, E., Latz, I., Kranz, G., Nandi A., & Heymann, J. (2018). Child marriage laws around the world: Minimum marriage age, legal exceptions, and gender disparities. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 39(1), 51-74. 10.1080/1554477X.2017.1375786

Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS. (2020). Pencegahan perkawinan anak. Jakarta: Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional.

Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS. (2018). Statistik pemuda Indonesia 2018. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik. https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2018/12/21/572f941511d090083dd742d6/statistik-pemuda-indonesia-2018.html

Djamilah, D., & Kartikawati, R. (2014). Dampak perkawinan anak di Indonesia. Jurnal Studi Pemuda, 3(1), 1-16.
Efron, B. (1979). Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife. Annals of Statistics, 7, 1-26. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2958830

Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Fox, J. & Weisberg, S. (2011). An R companion to applied regression. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2nd edition

Gastón, C. M., Misunas, C., & Cappa, C. (2019). Child marriage among boys: A global overview of available data. Vulnerable children and youth studies, 14(3), 219-228.

Hidayana, I. M., Noor, I. R., Benedicta, G. D., Prahara, H., Zahro, F. A., Kartikawati, S. R., & Kok, M. C. (2016). Factors influencing child marriage, teenage pregnancy and female genital mutilation/circumcision in Lombok Barat and Sukabumi Districts, Indonesia.

Hidayatulloh, I., Putri, R., Ter Naotrue, R., & Fedryansyah, M. (2018). Persepsi perkawinan usia dini dan pemberdayaan gender. Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Sosiologi, 3(1).

Jensen, R., & Thornton, R. (2003). Early female marriage in the developing world. Gender & Development, 11(2), 9-19.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2013). Riset kesehatan dasar 2013. Jakarta.

KemenPPA. 2020. Pelanggaran hak anak, perkawinan anak bukan pilihan. https://www.kemenpppa.go.id/index.php/page/read/29/2685/pelanggaran-hak-anak-perkawinan-anak-bukan-pilihan

Kidman, R. (2017). Child marriage and intimate partner violence: A comparative study of 34 countries. International journal of epidemiology, 46(2), 662-675.

Kohno, A., Techasrivichien, T., Suguimoto, S. P., Dahlui, M., Nik Farid, N. D., & Nakayama, T. (2020). Investigation of the key factors that influence the girls to enter into child marriage: A meta-synthesis of qualitative evidence. PloSone, 15(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal

Mahmudah, U. (2020). Metode statistika: Step by step. Pekalongan: Penerbit NEM.

Mahmudah, U., Suhartono, & Rohayana, A. D. (2018). A robust data envelopment analysis for evaluating technical efficiency of indonesian high schools. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(1), 114-121.

Maisyal, N. (2016). Reformulasi hukum perkawinan islam responsif gender. Muwazah, 8(2), 163-184.

Mikhail, S. L. B. (2002). Child marriage and child prostitution: Two forms of sexual exploitation. Gender & Development, 10(1), 43-49.

Miswoni, A. (2016). Stereotip kesetaraan gender terhadap budaya pernikahan dini pada masyarakat Madura. Jurnal Pamator: Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Trunojoyo, 9(1).

Munawara, M., Yasak, E. M., & Dewi, S. I. (2015). Budaya pernikahan dini terhadap kesetaraan gender masyarakat Madura. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi, 4(3), 42455.

Pakasi, D. T. (2019). Child marriage in Indonesia: Practices, politics, and struggles. MASYARAKAT: Jurnal Sosiologi, 24(1). 10.7454/MJS.v24i1.10956

Rumble, L., Peterman, A., Irdiana, N., Triyana, M., & Minnick, E. (2018). An empirical exploration of female child marriage determinants in Indonesia. BMC public health, 18(1), 407.

Setiyawan, H. (2019). Realitas gender di dalam keluarga nikah dini [Undergraduate honors thesis, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, Fakultas Ushuludin dan Pemikiran Islam, Program Studi Sosiologi Agama)

UNICEF. (2020). Child aarriage. https://www.unicef.org/protection/child-marriage

United Nations Population Fund. (2014). The state of world population 2014: The power of 1.8 billion. New York: UNFPA.
Published
2020-12-18
How to Cite
ROHAYANA, Ade Dedi. Gender Discrimination on Child Marriage in Indonesia: A Quantitative Research Using Bootstrap Approach. MUWAZAH: Jurnal Kajian Gender, [S.l.], p. 237-254, dec. 2020. ISSN 2502-5368. Available at: <http://e-journal.iainpekalongan.ac.id/index.php/Muwazah/article/view/2847>. Date accessed: 08 mar. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.28918/muwazah.v12i2.2847.
Section
Artikel