Pesantren and Takzir in Indonesia: Lawrence Friedman’s Legal System Perspective

  • Muhammad Chairul Huda IAIN Salatiga
  • Sukirno Sukirno Universitas Diponegoro Semarang
  • Sukron Ma’mun Western Sydney University Austalia

Abstract

This article explains the legal system existing in the Pesantren, particularly in the term of takzir called perceived as non-human punishment contradictory with human rights. This research took place in Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro (PPEM) Salatiga with inclusive and tolerant characters, and voicing religious moderation. PPEM has had alumni becoming national figures. This study employed Lawrence Friedman’s legal system theory requiring the functioning of law in three components: legal structure, legal substance, and legal culture. This research employed qualitative method with data source obtained from field work study with depth interview technique and descriptive interpretive analysis. The result of research showed that Pesantren Edi Mancoro has legal system component as required by Friedman. In the context of takzir, there is a shift in the takzir (punishment) application method to evidently undisciplined students or those committing crime. Takzir contributes to creating personality (noble character) of santri in undertaking life post-pesantren. Takzir actually has educative values not contradictory with human rights. So, takzir in pesantren fulfills all components of legal system suggested by Friedman. Out of the three components, legal culture is the basic components of takzir functioning in pesantren, either internal or external legal culture.

References

Alam, N. A. R. (2016). Caring for the Excellence of Pesantren; the Contribution of Islamic Education Curriculum in Globalization. International Advisory Board, 124–131.

Amri, M., Tahir, S. Z. A. Bin, & Ahmad, S. (2017). The Implementation of Islamic Teaching in Multiculturalism Society: A Case Study at Pesantren Schools in Indonesia. Asian Social Science, 13(6), 125. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v13n6p125

Arifin, S., & Zaini, A. (2017). Takzir dalam Pendidikan Pesantren Kajian Teknik Pengubahan Tingkah Laku Perspektif Konseling. In Proceedings of Annual Conference for Muslim Scholars, (2), 812–823.

Braithwaite, J. (2002). Rules_and_Principles2002.pdf. Austl. J. Leg. Phil., 27, 47–82.

Dhofier, Z. (2019). Tradisi Pesantren: Studi Pandangan Hidup Kyai dan Visinya Mengenai Masa Depan Indonesia (X). Jakarta: LP3ES.

Fitria, M. A. (2020). Interiew. February, 12, Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro.

Friedman, L. (1975). The Legal System; Social Science Perspective. New York: Russle Sage Foundation.
______________. (2018). Sistem Hukum Perspektif Ilmu Sosial (terj; M. Khozim, Ed.). Bandung: Nusa Media.
Hafidz, M. (2020). Interview. February, 14 Salatiga.

Hamdi, S., Carnegie, P. J., & Smith, B. J. (2015). The recovery of a non-violent identity for an Islamist pesantren in an age of terror. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 69(6), 692–710. https://doi.org/10.1080/10357718.2015.1058339

Hamid, N. A., Mohamed, A. M. T., Pauzai, N. A., & Syed Nong, S. N. A. (2015). Takzir offences and youth offenders : A critical appraisal of the syariah criminal offences (Takzir) (Terengganu) enactment 2001. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 23(SpecialIssue11), 27–38.

Hanif, M. (2020). Interview. February, 10 Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro.

Hidayah, U. (2019). Optimalisasi Pendidikan Islam Postmodren Dalam Pendekatan Kitab Klasik Alala. Al-Muaddib Jurnal Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan, 1(1). Retrieved from http://jurnal.staim-probolinggo.ac.id/index.php/Muaddib/article/view/1-15/pdf

Huda, M. C., & Ispriyarso, B. (2019). Contribution of islamic law in the discretionary scheme that has Implications for corruption. 19(2), 147–167. https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v19i2.147-167

Huda, M. C., Yusriyadi, Y., & Thohir, M. (2020). Perspectives and movement of Nadlatul Ulama (NU) in counter-terrorism. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(2), 1579–1595. https://doi.org/10.37200/IJPR/V24I2/PR200462

Ibrahim, R. (2014). Eksistensi pesantren salaf di tengah arus pendidikan modern (Studi multisitus pada beberapa pesantren salaf di Jawa Tengah). Jurnal Analisa, 21(2), 253–263.

Lukens-Bull, R. (2008). The traditions of pluralism, accommodation, and anti-radicalism in the pesantren community. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 2(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2008.2.1.1-15
________________. (2010). “Madrasa By Any Other Name: Pondok, Pesantren, and Islamic Schools in Southeast Asia. . Journal of Indonesian Islam.

Ma’arif, M. A. (2017). Hukuman (Punishment) dalam Perspektif Pendidikan di Pesantren. Ta’allum: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 5(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.21274/taalum.2017.5.1.1-20

Ma’arif, S. (2014). Ideologi Pesantren Salaf: Deradikalisasi Agama Dan Budaya Damai. IBDA` : Jurnal Kajian Islam Dan Budaya, 12(2), 198–209. https://doi.org/10.24090/ibda.v12i2.446

Masroer, M. (2018). Religious Inclusivism In Indonesia: Study of Pesantren An-Nida and Edi Mancoro, Salatiga, Central Java. ESENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin, 19(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.14421/esensia.v19i1.1485

Mertokusumo, S. (2005). Mengenal Hukum (Suatu Pengantar) (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Liberty.

Nawawi Arif, B. (2017). Ilmu Hukum Pidana Integralistik (Pemikiran Integratif dalam Hukum Pidana. Semarang: Pustaka Magister.

O’Banion, T. (1978). Innovations in Humanistic Education. Community College Review, 5(3), 21–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/009155217800500303

Phol, F. (2006). Islamic Education and Civil Society: Reflections on the Pesantren Tradition in Contemporary Indonesia. Comparative Education Review, 50(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1086/503882

Rahardjo, S. (2009). Negara Hukum yang Membahagiakan Rakyatnya (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Genta Publishing.

Rai, N. (2012). Volksgeist: In View of Friedrich Carl Von Savigny. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1695389

Rofiah, Z. (2020). Interview. February, 12, Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro.

Safera, D. (2020). Interview. February, 12, Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro.

Santoso, T. (2012). Implementation of Islamic Criminal Law in Indonesia: Taʿzīr Punishment As a Solution? IIUM Law Journal, 19(1), 123–148. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumlj.v19i1.6

Saputra, A. (2020). Interview. February, 12, Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro.

Schmitt, C., Schwab, G., & Strong, T. B. (2008). The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes: Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=iDE56HLy4XMC

Shofwan, I., & Kuntoro, S. A. (2014). Pengelolaan Program Pembelajaran Pendidikan Alternatif Komunitas Belajar Qaryah Thayyibah Di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, 1(1), 50. https://doi.org/10.21831/jppm.v1i1.2356

Srimulyani, E. (2007). Muslim Women and Education in Indonesia: The pondok pesantren experience. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 27(1), 85–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188790601145564

Sukri, M. (2020). Interview. February, 12, Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro.

Suradi, A., & Bengkulu, I. (2018). Transformation Of Pesantren Traditions In Face The Globalization Era Introduction In General ; Pesantren can be distinguished to the pesantren of khalafiyah and salafi . The teaching system used classical methods . 1 This method is known as the sorogan or. 12(51), 27–38.

Susanto, H. (2011). Pengaruh Intensitas Mengikuti Kajlan Ta’limul Muta’alim Terhadap Ketawadlu’an Santri Kepada Kiai di Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro Desa. Gedangan, Kec. Tuntang, Kab. Semarang Tahun 2011. IAIN Salatiga.

Tanya, B. et. al. (2013). Teori Hukum Strategi Tertib Manusia (IV). Yogyakarta: Genta Publishing.

Thohir, M. (2007). Memahami Kebudayaan: Teori, Metodologi, dan Aplikasi. Semarang: Fasindo.

Warassih, E. (2005). Pranata Hukum; Sebuah Telaah Sosiologis. Semarang: Suryandaru Persada.

Wardiah, I., & Subandi. (2018). Mengembangkan lifeskill mahasiswa melalui model pembelajaran stad. Prosiding Seminar Nasional ASBIS 2018, 195–205.

Widayatullah, W. (1907). ( Penelitian di Pondok Pesantren Al-Musaddadiyah Garut ). Pengaruh Ta’Zir Terhadap Peningkatan Kedisiplinan Santri Di Pondok Pesantren, Vol. 06; N, 66–77.

Winter, R. K. J. (2015). Changing Concepts of Equality: From Equality before the Law to the Welfare State. Wash. U. L. Q, 1(3).

Woodward, M., Rohmaniyah, I., Amin, A., & Coleman, D. (2010). Muslim Education, Celebrating Islam and Having Fun As Counter- Radicalization Strategies in Indonesia. Perspective on Terrorism, 4(4), 28–50.

Zalidj, U. K. C. (2011). Efektifitas Takzir dalam Meningkatkan Disiplin Santri di Pondok Pesantren Putri Roudlotut Tholibin Rembang Tahun 2010. IAIN Walisongo Semarang.

Zakaria, G.A.N. (2010). Pondok Pesantren : Changes and Its Future. Journal of Islamaic and Arabic Education, 2(2), 45–52.

Zuhdi, M. M. (2019). Modernisasi Pondok Pesantren Edi Mancoro Gedangan Kabupaten Semarang untuk Membangun Masyarakat Madani. IAIN Salatiga.

Zuhriy, M. S. (2011). Budaya Pesantren Dan Pendidikan Karakter Pada Pondok Pesantren Salaf. Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan, 19(2), 287. https://doi.org/10.21580/ws.2011.19.2.159
Published
2020-04-11
How to Cite
HUDA, Muhammad Chairul; SUKIRNO, Sukirno; MA’MUN, Sukron. Pesantren and Takzir in Indonesia: Lawrence Friedman’s Legal System Perspective. JURNAL PENELITIAN, [S.l.], p. 43-54, apr. 2020. ISSN 2541-6944. Available at: <http://e-journal.iainpekalongan.ac.id/index.php/Penelitian/article/view/2755>. Date accessed: 01 oct. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.28918/jupe.v17i1.2755.
Section
Artikel