Pluralism of Religion Based on Sharia as An Anticipation of Intolerance in Muslims Majority Countries of The Southeast Asian

  • Syariful Alam University of Muhammadiyah Malang
  • Happy David Pradhan Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Abstract

Religious pluralism is a constructive attitude, not only theological normative awareness but also social awareness, where we live in a pluralistic society in terms of religion, culture, ethnicity, and various other social diversity. In addition, religious pluralism must also be understood as a true affinity for diversity. Religious pluralism is a concept that has a broad meaning, is related to the acceptance of various religions, and is used in different ways. Pluralism aims to deconstruct absolutism, asserting relativism and underlying tolerance for differences, heterogeneity, and pluralism not only as facts that must be recognized but pluralism is seen and treated as a form of positivism, not negativism. Besides religious pluralism is also used as a unifying tool and glue for a country, both from the lower, middle and upper classes. In addition, a pluralist who promotes pluralism through pluralism must acknowledge and defend these differences, pluralism, and heterogeneity to be used as useful things. But in fact until now in the midst of society, there are still different perceptions in interpreting plurality and the term pluralism, understanding multicultural meaning based on sharia, not just mere personal perception.

References

Al-Sa’awy, Muhammad bin ‘Audah, al-‘Aqiidah, Riyad: Dâr Isybilia, I, 2002.

al-Tahanâwi, Muhammad, Kashshâf Ishthilâhât al-Funûn, I, Egypt: al-Isti‘anah, 1317 H

Andaya, Barbara Watson and Leonard Y. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, London: Macmillan, 1982.

An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahm, Islam and the Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Sharia, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Departement of Information, Brunei in Brief, Brunei Darussalam: Departement of Government Printing, 2013.

Ernst, Carl W., Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Modern World, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Fealy, Greg and Virginia Hooker (ed.), Voices of Islam in Southeast Asia: A Contemporary Sourcebook, Singapore: ISEAS, 2006

Hick, J. A., Problems of Religious Pluralism, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985.

Hick, John, An Interpretation of Religon: Human Responses to the Transcendent, London: Macmillan, 1989.

Hussain, Amir, Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialog, in Omid Safi (ed.), Progressive Muslims: on Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, Oxford: Bell & Bain Ltd., 2003.

Johns, Anthony, “Tariqah.” In The Encyclopaedia of Religion. Mircea Eliade, editor in chief. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, Vol. 14 (1987), pp. 342-352.

Keene, Michael, World Religions, in F.A. Soeprapto (Trans.), Agama-Agama Dunia, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2006.

Khalîl al-Qaththân, Mannâ’, al-Tashrî’ wa al-fqh f al-Islâm: Târîkhan wa Manhajan, Riyadh: Maktabah Wahbah, 1976.

Korten, D. C., Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary Action and the Global Agenda, Hartworth: Kumarian Press, 1990.

L., Comber, 13 May 1969: A Historical Survey of Sino-Malay Relations, 2, Singapore: Graham Brash, 2001.

Laisa, Emna, Islam dan Radikalisme, Jurnal Islamuna, vol. 1, no. 1, Juni 2014.

Lim, Merlyna, “Radical Islamism in Indonesia and Its Middle Eastern Connection.” Meria Journal, vol. 15, 2011, pp. 20-35.

Manzhûr, Ibnu, Lisân al-‘Arab, III, Beirut: Dar al-Ma‘ârif, no year.

Misrawi, Z., Al-Qur’an Kitab Toleransi: Inklusivisme, Pluralisme, dan Multikulturalisme, Jakarta: Fitrah, 2007.

Mohd Khambali Hambali, Khadijah, and Mohd Herzali Mohd Haled, Toleransi Beragama dan Amalannya di Malaysia: Rujukan Kepada Artikel 11 Perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaysia, Jurnal Usuluddin, vol. 27, 2008.

Muhammad Ath-thahan, Musthafa, Pribadi Muslim Tangguh, Al-Kausar, Jakarta, 2002.

Mulyadi, Sukidi, “Violence under the Banner of Religion: The Case of Laskar Jihad and Laskar Kristus,” Studia Islamika, vol. 10, 2003, pp. 178-185.

Peletz, Michael, Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times, New York: Routledge, 2009.

Pew Research Center, The Global Religious Lanscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Major Religious Groups as of 2010, Washington D.C., 2012.

Q.S. Al-Hujurat (49): 13 https://quran.com/49

Q.S. An Nisaa' (4) : 1 https://quran.com/4

Rodin, Dede, Islam Dan Radikalisme: Telaah atas Ayat-ayat “Kekerasan” dalam al-Qur’an, Jurnal Addin, vol. 10, no. 1, Februari 2016, pp. 30-31.

Roshid Moten, Abdul, Government and Politics in Malaysia, Australia: Cencage Learning, 2008.

Ruliyadi, “Brunei Darussalam di Bawah Kepemimpinan Sultan Bolkiah V (1485-1524)”, Skripsi Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Not Published 2011.

Sabiq, Sayyid, al-‘Aqâid al-Islâmiyyah, in Ali Mahmudi (Trans.), Aqidah Islamiyah, Jakarta: Robbani Press, I, 2006.

Sachedina, Abdulaziz, The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Saunders, Graham, A History of Brunei, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Sofan, Moh., Pendidikan Berbasis Pluralisme dalam buku Menegakkan Pluralisme Fundamentalisme-Konservatif di Tubuh Muhammadiyah, 2010.

Syalaby, Ahmad, Muqâranah al-Adyân 4: Adyân al-Hind alKubrâ, Kairo: Maktabah al-Nahd}ah al-Micriyyah, 2000.

Syaukani, Imam, “Hakikat Hukum Islam:Antara Divine Law Dan ManMade Law”. Ulumuddin, vol. 6, no. 4, Januari-Juni 2010.

Turner, Bryan S., Religion and Modern Society, Citizenship, Secularisation and the State, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Wahab Abd. Muhaimin, Abdul, Hukum Islam dan Kedudukan Perempuan dalam Perkawinan dan Perceraian, I, Jakarta: Gaung Persada Press, 2013.

Watson Andaya, Barbara, and Leonard Y. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, London: Macmillan, 1982.
Published
2021-04-30
How to Cite
ALAM, Syariful; PRADHAN, Happy David. Pluralism of Religion Based on Sharia as An Anticipation of Intolerance in Muslims Majority Countries of The Southeast Asian. RELIGIA, [S.l.], p. 64-78, apr. 2021. ISSN 2527-5992. Available at: <http://e-journal.iainpekalongan.ac.id/index.php/Religia/article/view/2885>. Date accessed: 21 oct. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.28918/religia.v24i1.2885.
Section
Artikel