Promoting Forest City Management Based On Islamic Approach
AbstractThere are many Koranic verses revealed the structure of city space, including forest city itself. These verses confirmed the ancient history records that human being creates the great civilization. One of their prestigious creations is a modern management concept of structuring the forest city. It shows how to build a green space, an unpolluted air and water, and a healthy environment. This paper studied the Islamic approach to forest city management in light a concept of Maqasid al-Syariah of Abu Ishaq Asy-Syatibi. Maqasid al-Syariah are Islamic pillars whose goal that is keeping sustainability, the existence and continuity of human life. It means that Islam has serious concern over good environment and its impact on health and wellbeing. According to Islam, the destructive behaviors cause damage just toward a single part of the environment are as bad as those destruct all of it. Therefore, managing forest city as well as Koranic directions depicted within its verses is a duty of Muslim people and for both secular or Islamic government.
Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Jarir bin Yazid bin Katsir bin Ghalib al-Amali ath-Thabari, Jami’ al-Bayan ‘an Ta’wil Ayil Qur’an, Tahqiq: Basyar Iwad Ma’ruf and Isham Faris al-Kharrastani, vol. 5, Beirut: Muassasah al-Risalah, 1994.
Abu Laits Nashr bin Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Ibrahim as-Samarqandi, Bahr al-Ulum, Tahqiq: Syeikh Ali Muhammad Muawwad and Syeikh Adil Ahmad Abdul Mawjud, vol. 2, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiah, 1993.
Abu Muhammad al-Husain ibn Mas’ud al-Baghawafi, Ma’alim al-Tanzil, vol. 7, Riyadh: Dar Thaiba, 1412.
Agustina Emmi Kurniastuti, "Pengelolaan Hutan Kota di Jakarta: Studi Kasus Hutan Kota Srengseng di Jakarta Barat," in Jurnal Pembangunan Wilayah dan Kota, Vol. 9 (4), 2013.
Alexis A. Alvey, “Promoting and preserving biodiversity in the urban forest,” in Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 5, 2006.
Alfredo B. Lorenzo, Catalino A. Blanche, Yadong Qi, and Malcolm M. Guidry, "Assessing Residents’ Willingness To Pay To Preserve The Community Urban Forest: A Small-City Case Study," in Journal of Arboriculture, Vol. 26 (6), 2000.
Antje Ahrendsa, Neil D. Burgess, Simon A. H. Milledge, Mark T. Bulling, Brendan Fisher, James C. R. Smart, G. Philip Clarke, Boniface E. Mhoro, and Simon L. Lewis, “Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city,” in PNAS, Vol. 107, No. 33, 2010.
Cecil C. Konijnendijk, The Forest and the City: the Cultural Landscapes of Urban Woodland, edisi 2, Sringer International Publishing AG, 2018.
E. Gregory McPherson, David Nowak, Gordon Heisler, Sue Grimmond, Catherine Souch, Rich Grant dan Rowan Rowntree, “Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project,” in Urban Ecosystems, Vol. 1, 1997.
Jelle A. Hiemstra, Hadas Saaroni, and Jorge H. Amorim, “The Urban Heat Island: Thermal Comfort and the Role of Urban Greening,” dalam David Pearlmutter, dkk. (ed.), The Urban Forest: Cultivating Green Infrastructure for People and Environment, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.
John F. Dwyer, E. Gregory McPherson, Herbert W. Schroeder, and Rowan A. Rowntree, “Assessing the Benefits and Costs of the Urban Forest," in Journal of Arboriculture, vol. 18(2), 1992.
Jun Yanga, Joe McBridea, Jinxing Zhoub, Zhenyuan Sunb, “ The urban forest in Beijing and its role in air pollution reduction,” in Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 3, 2005.
Liisa Tyrv¨ainen and Antti Miettinen, "Property Prices and Urban Forest Amenities," in Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 39, 2000.
Q. Li, K. Morimotoi, M. Kobayashi, H. Inagaki, M. Katsumata, Y. Hirata, K. Hirata, H. Suzuki, Y.l. LI, Y. Wakayama, T. Kawada, B.J. Park, T. Ohira, N. Matsuf, T. Kagawa, Y. Miyazaki and A.M. Krensky, "Visiting A Forest, But Not A City, Increases Human Natural Killer Activity And Expression Of Anti-Cancer Proteins," in International Journal Of Immunopathology And Pharmacology , Vol. 21, No. I, 2008.
Roeland Samson, “Introduction: Urban Trees As Environmental Engineers,” dalam David Pearlmutter, etc. (ed.), The Urban Forest: Cultivating Green Infrastructure for People and Environment, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.
Zhang Biao, Li Wenhua, Xie Gaodi and Xiao Yu, “Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Beijing and its Value,” in Ecological Economics, vol. 69, 2010.
“Stefano Boeri Architetti, Italy,” in https://www.tvarchitect.com accessed 9 November, 2018.
“Surah Asy-Syu’araa’,” in https://www.surah.my accessed 6 November 2018.
“World Population Clock: 7.7. Billion People (2018),” in www.worldometers.info accessed 5 November 2018.
Arif (ed.), “Wali Kota Langsa Segera Bangun Tempat Wisata dan Olahraga Islami,” ini https://m.goaceh.co accessed 9 November 2018.
Charlie Moore, “The City of Forest: Chine Creates World’s First Forest City where All Buildings Are Covered in a Million Plants to Tackle Global Warming and Air Pollution,” ini https://www-dailymail-co-uk.cdn.ampproject.org accessed 9 November, 2018.
https://www.langsakota.go.id accessed 9 November, 2018.
Ibnu Khaldun, Muqaddimah, Ch. 5. 20, in www.muslimphilosopy.com accessed 6 November, 2018.
Mochamad Solehudin, “Forest Walk Baksil Bandung Diklaim Salah Satu Terpanjang di ASEAN,” in https://m.detik.com, accessed on 09 Nov. 18.
Thayeb Loh Angen (ed.), “Ada Apa di Hutan Kota Langsa?,” in http://portalsatu.com accessed 9 November, 2018.
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britanica, “Thamud: Ancient Arabian Tribe,” in https://www.britanica.com accessed 6 November 2018.