The Rationality of Ibn Khaldun and Machiavelli In Thought of Religious and Political Relations

  • Ui Ardaninggar Luhtitianti


This article aims to describe Ibn Khaldun and Machiavelli's thoughts in the context of religious and political relations. How are the differences and similarities, and what is the background for their thinking? The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative, with secondary data sources from various literature in the form of books and journal articles that discuss the political, religious, and state thoughts of the two figures. The results of the analysis reveal that Ibn Khaldun and Machiavelli's political, religious, and state thoughts were born as an antithesis to the previous idealistic tendencies of thought. The socio-political situation that developed during their lifetime is one of the causes of these differences in style and significantly influences their thinking. In the context of practical politics, they tend to be rational. Meanwhile, they place religion as an institution that has an essential role as an adhesive element in society. Both of them argue that religion is a social institution that is functional towards the stability of the state.


Al Khudhairi, Z. (1987). Falsafah al-Tarikh ’inda Ibn Khaldun. Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka.
Alatas, S. F. (2015). Front Matter for: Applying Ibn Khaldun: The Recovery of a Lost Tradition in Sociology. In SSRN Electronic Journal.
Bosley, R. (2010). Empiricism and Traditionalism in the Philosophy of History of Ibn Khaldūn. Dialogue, 6(02), 166–180.
Greenberg, J., & Baron, R. A. (2000). Behavior in Organizations Understanding and Managing the Human Side of Work. New Jersey: Prentice – Hall International.
Hardiman, F. B. (2004). Filsafat Modern Dari Machiavelli Sampai Nietzsche. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Hasyim, H. (2012). Watak Peradaban dalam Epistemologi Ibnu Khaldun. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Kamaruddin. (2015). Pemikiran Politik Ibnu Khaldun Dan Pembentukan Teori Sosiologi Politik. Jurnal Ilmu Agama UIN Raden Fatah, 16(2), 66–80.
Kayapinar, M. A. (2008). Ibn Khaldun’s concept of assabiyya: An alternative tool for understanding long-term politics. Asian Journal of Social Science, 36(3), 375–407.
Khaldun, I. (2008). Muqoddimah Ibn Khaldun. Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus.
Korkut, S. (2008). Ibn Khaldun’s Critique of the Theory of “ al-Siyâsah al-Madaniyyah.” Asian Journal of Social Science, 36(3), 547–570.
Maarif, S. (1996). Ibn Khaldun dalam Pandangan Penulis Barat dan Penulis Timur. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press.
Machiavelli, N. (1991). Sang penguasa. 131.
Muta’ali, A. (2011). Membangun Negara Yang Kuat: Pemikiran Politik Ibnu Khaldun (1332-1406) dan Niccolo Machiavelli (1467-1527). Universitas Indonesia.
Noor, D. (2000). Pemikiran Politik di Negeri Barat. Mizan.
Patriarca, G. (2010). Approach to Social Sciences : The Philosophy of Ibn Khaldun and Actual Reflections. 13(1), 175–188.
Puspitasari, S. H. (2001). Kontektualisasi Pemikiran Machiavelli tentang Kekuasaan-Tujuan Negara. Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, 8(18), 30–45.
Ritzer, G. (2004). Teori Sosiologi Modern. Prenada Media.
Riyadi, A. K. (2017). Tasawuf Antara Penafsiran Normatif dan Sosiologis dalam Pemikiran Ibn Khaldun. ISLAMICA: Jurnal Studi Keislaman, 4(September), 9–15.
Satriawan, L. A. (2015). Analisa Sufistik Mimpi Nubuwwah dalam Proses Kenabian. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf Dan Pemikiran Islam, 1(1), 18.
Schmandt, H. J. (2015). Filsafat Politik Kajian Historis dari Zaman Yunani Kuno Sampai Zaman Modern (Cetakan IV; Kamdani, Ed.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Sunar, L., & Yasliçimen, F. (2008). The possibilities of new perspectives for social sciences: An analysis based on Ibn Khaldun’s theory of Umrân. Asian Journal of Social Science, 36(3), 408–433.
Syros, V. (2015). Behind The Great Reformer There is A “Machiavelli”: Al-Maghili, Machiavelli, and The Micro-Politics of An Early Modern African and An Italian City-State. Philosophy East and West, 65(4), 1119–1148.
Yoran, H. (2010). Machiavelli’s Critique of Humanisme and The Ambivalences of Modernity. History of Political Thought, 31(2), 247–282.
How to Cite
LUHTITIANTI, Ui Ardaninggar. The Rationality of Ibn Khaldun and Machiavelli In Thought of Religious and Political Relations. Islamic Studies Journal for Social Transformation, [S.l.], p. 39-58, may 2020. ISSN 2615-1286. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 oct. 2021. doi: