A Systematic Literature Review of Gender and Politics: Stereotypes of Gender in Political Zone on Social Media

  • Al Fauzi Rahmat Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Galih Bagas Soesilo Universitas Muhammadiyah Purworejo, Indonesia
  • Andy Arya Maulana Wijaya Universitas Muhammadiyah Buton, Indonesia
  • Nareewan Klinrat Maejo University, Thailand
Keywords: gender, politics, social media, stereotype, literature review


Gender issues frequently arise in political debates, and they are accompanied by negative stereotypes on social media that political opponents echo. This issue draws attention among scholars to examine of gender and political issues in social media, but we have not found any across research that can map gender and political issues in social media with the output of patterns and themes.. Therefore, this article seeks to identify trends of gender issues and politics on social media and alludes to the various stereotypes. To initiate the findings and discussion, a qualitative literature review study was used, in which data were obtained from the Academic Scopus Database involved analysis of 89 articles, which data source from 2012 to 2021 in the social science discipline. Data were managed by the NVivo 12 Plus and VOSViewer as a data analysis tool – with some of the main menus used in the NVivo 12 plus (themes classification; project maps; and group classification), other side used VOSViewer (density and overlay visualization). Our findings highlight various emerging themes proportion regarding gender issues and politics on social media. These topics have tended to increase in the current decade; newest research trends have led to studies on gender and sexuality, female leaders, anti-immigration, voice, and young women, as well as LGBT, which politics intersect—followed by some issues such as black women, Muslim women, and also white women that get involved in political debates. There are three striking main propositions: social media, politics, and gender. However, many politicians and social media users bring up the gender stereotype. In short, this research can contribute to enriching the treasures of gender issues and politics on social media.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Galih Bagas Soesilo, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purworejo, Indonesia
Department of Law
Andy Arya Maulana Wijaya, Universitas Muhammadiyah Buton, Indonesia
Department of Government Science


Akter, S., & Islam, M. A. (2019). Perceived value of social media in students’ participation in social movement: A developing country perspective. Digital Library Perspectives, 35(3–4), 244–258. https://doi.org/10.1108/DLP-06-2019-0023

Almenara-Niebla, S., & Ascanio-Sánchez, C. (2020). Connected Sahrawi refugee diaspora in Spain: Gender, social media and digital transnational gossip. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 23(5), 768–783. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549419869357

Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Sociology, 42(2), 139–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-019-9413-7

Åström, J., & Karlsson, M. (2016). The feminine style, the male influence, and the paradox of gendered political blogspace. Information Communication and Society, 19(11), 1636–1652. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154088

Barness, J. (2015). Social Disruptions: WYSi-WE, What You See is What Emerged. Visual Communication, 14(1), 41–48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357214535304

Beltran, J., Gallego, A., Huidobro, A., Romero, E., & Padró, L. (2021). Male and female politicians on Twitter: A machine learning approach. European Journal of Political Research, 60(1), 239–251. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12392

Bode, L. (2017). Closing the gap: gender parity in political engagement on social media. Information Communication and Society, 20(4), 587–603. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1202302

Bonart, M., Samokhina, A., Heisenberg, G., & Schaer, P. (2020). An investigation of biases in web search engine query suggestions. Online Information Review, 44(2), 365–381. https://doi.org/10.1108/OIR-11-2018-0341

Braithwaite, A. (2016). It’s About Ethics in Games Journalism? Gamergaters and Geek Masculinity. Social Media and Society, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305116672484

Caldeira, S. P. (2021). “It’s not just instagram models”: Exploring the gendered political potential of young women’s instagram use. Media and Communication, 9(2), 5–15. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v9i2.3731

Caldeira, S. P., De Ridder, S., & Van Bauwel, S. (2020). Between the Mundane and the Political: Women’s Self-Representations on Instagram. Social Media and Society, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120940802

Caldeira, S. P., Van Bauwel, S., & Ridder, S. De. (2021). ‘Everybody needs to post a selfie every once in a while’: exploring the politics of Instagram curation in young women’s self-representational practices. Information Communication and Society, 24(8), 1073–1090. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2020.1776371

Cardo, V. (2021). Gender politics online? Political women and social media at election time in the United Kingdom, the United States and New Zealand. European Journal of Communication, 36(1), 38–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323120968962

Castillo, R. (2021). The Han saviour behind the blackface: racialised and gendered media representations in Africa–China popular geopolitics. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 22(3), 421–439. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649373.2021.1966905

Chau, D. (2021). Spreading language ideologies through social media: Enregistering the ‘fake ABC’ variety in Hong Kong. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 25(4), 596–616. https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12486

Cohler, D. (2017). Consuming army wives: Military domesticity and nationalist neoliberalism on TV. Critical Military Studies, 3(3), 235–251. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2016.1187818

Cook, J. M. (2016). Gender, Party, and Presentation of Family in the Social Media Profiles of 10 State Legislatures. Social Media and Society, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305116646394

Dalkin, S., Forster, N., Hodgson, P., Lhussier, M., & Carr, S. M. (2021). Using computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS; NVivo) to assist in the complex process of realist theory generation, refinement and testing. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 24(1), 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2020.1803528

Darakchi, S. (2019). “The Western Feminists Want to Make Us Gay”: Nationalism, Heteronormativity, and Violence Against Women in Bulgaria in Times of “Anti-gender Campaigns.” Sexuality and Culture, 23(4), 1208–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-019-09611-9

Darshan, B. M., & Suresh, K. (2019). The ‘Social’ in political communication: Social media enabled political discourse, engagement and mobilization in India. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 7(4), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7425

Day, F. (2018). Between butch/femme: On the performance of race, gender, and sexuality in a YouTube web series. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 22(3), 267–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/10894160.2018.1383800

Demirhan, K., & Çakir-Demirhan, D. (2015). Gender and politics: Patriarchal discourse on social media. Public Relations Review, 41(2), 308–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2014.11.010

Dhrodia, A. (2018). Unsocial media: A toxic place for women. IPPR Progressive Review, 24(4), 380–387. https://doi.org/10.1111/newe.12078

Dickerson, N., & Hodler, M. (2021). “Real Men Stand for Our Nation”: Constructions of an American Nation and Anti-Kaepernick Memes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 45(4), 329–357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723520950537

Duffy, B. E. (2016). The romance of work: Gender and aspirational labour in the digital culture industries. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 19(4), 441–457. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877915572186

Duffy, B. E., & Pruchniewska, U. (2017). Gender and self-enterprise in the social media age: a digital double bind. Information Communication and Society, 20(6), 843–859. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1291703

Fangen, K., & Lichtenberg, L. (2021). Gender and family rhetoric on the German far right. Patterns of Prejudice, 55(1), 71–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2021.1898815

Fernández-Rovira, C., & Villegas-Simón, I. (2019). Comparative study of feminist positioning on twitter by Spanish politicians. Analisi, (61), 77–92. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/analisi.3234

Galpin, C., & Trenz, H. J. (2019). In the Shadow of Brexit: The 2019 European Parliament Elections as First-Order Polity Elections? Political Quarterly, 90(4), 664–671. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12768

Gilmore, J. (2012). Ditching the pack: Digital media in the 2010 Brazilian congressional campaigns. New Media and Society, 14(4), 617–633. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444811422429

Griffin, P. (2019). #MeToo, white feminism and taking everyday politics seriously in the global political economy. Australian Journal of Political Science, 54(4), 556–572. https://doi.org/10.1080/10361146.2019.1663399

Haghighat, E. (2014). Iran’s Changing Gender Dynamics in Light of Demographic, Political, and Technological Transformations. Middle East Critique, 23(3), 313–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/19436149.2014.949936

Harmer, E., & Southern, R. (2021). Digital microaggressions and everyday othering: an analysis of tweets sent to women members of Parliament in the UK. Information Communication and Society, 24(14), 1998–2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2021.1962941

Hruska, J., & Maresova, P. (2020). Use of social media platforms among adults in the United States—Behavior on social media. Societies, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10010027

Hu, L., & Kearney, M. W. (2021). Gendered Tweets: Computational Text Analysis of Gender Differences in Political Discussion on Twitter. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 40(4), 482–503. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X20969752

Hu, Y., Mu, Y., & Huang, Y. (2020). The #MeToo narrative: Reconstructing the cultural intelligibility of female subjects. Women’s Studies International Forum, 80(September 2019), 102365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2020.102365

Hynnä, K., Lehto, M., & Paasonen, S. (2019). Affective Body Politics of Social Media. Social Media and Society, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119880173

Johnson, D. (2014). “May the Force be with Katie”: Pink media franchising and the postfeminist politics of HerUniverse. Feminist Media Studies, 14(6), 895–911. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2014.882856

Karatzogianni, A. (2015). The Social Media Political Subject Is an Infant. Social Media and Society, 1(1), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115580480

Karlsson, M., & Åström, J. (2018). Social media and political communication: Innovation and normalisation in parallel. Journal of Language and Politics, 17(2), 305–323. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.17006.kar

Kassa, B. E., & Sarikakis, K. (2019). Social media trivialization of the increasing participation of women in politics in Ethiopia. Journal of African Media Studies, 11(1), 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1386/jams.11.1.21_1

Kelly Garrett, R. (2019). Social media’s contribution to political misperceptions in U.S. Presidential elections. PLoS ONE, 14(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213500

Keskinen, S. (2018). The ‘crisis’ of white hegemony, neonationalist femininities and antiracist feminism. Women’s Studies International Forum, 68(October), 157–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2017.11.001

Kirsten Zeiter, Pepera, S., & Middlehurst, M. (2019). Tweets That Chill : Analyzing Online Violence Against Women in Politics. National Democratic Institute. Retrieved from www.ndi.org

Kumar, S., & Parameswaran, R. (2018). Charting an Itinerary for Postcolonial Communication and Media Studies. Journal of Communication, 68(2), 347–358. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqx025

Kuperberg, R. (2021). Incongruous and illegitimate Antisemitic and Islamophobic semiotic violence against women in politics in the United Kingdom. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 9(1), 100–126. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00055.kup

Lee, Y. (2013). Digital opportunities and democratic participation in Tech-Sawy Korea. Korea Observer, 44(4), 545–568.

Lilleker, D., Koc-Michalska, K., & Bimber, B. (2021). Women learn while men talk?: revisiting gender differences in political engagement in online environments. Information Communication and Society, 24(14), 2037–2053. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2021.1961005

Lindholm, J., Carlson, T., & Högväg, J. (2021). See Me, Like Me! Exploring Viewers’ Visual Attention to and Trait Perceptions of Party Leaders on Instagram. International Journal of Press/Politics, 26(1), 167–187. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161220937239

Litchfield, C., Kavanagh, E., Osborne, J., & Jones, I. (2018). Social media and the politics of gender, race and identity: the case of Serena Williams. European Journal for Sport and Society, 15(2), 154–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2018.1452870

M., S. V. N., & Arriagada, S. A. S. A. (2016). Social Media in Latin America: Deepening or Bridging Gaps in Protest Participation? Online Information Review, 40(5).

Maas, M. K., McCauley, H. L., Bonomi, A. E., & Leija, S. G. (2018). “I Was Grabbed by My Pussy and Its #NotOkay”: A Twitter Backlash Against Donald Trump’s Degrading Commentary. Violence Against Women, 24(14), 1739–1750. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801217743340

Maclean, K. (2018). Envisioning gender, indigeneity and urban change: the case of La Paz, Bolivia. Gender, Place and Culture, 25(5), 711–726. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2018.1460327

McGregor, S. C., Lawrence, R. G., & Cardona, A. (2017). Personalization, gender, and social media: gubernatorial candidates’ social media strategies. Information Communication and Society, 20(2), 264–283. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1167228

McGregor, S. C., & Mourão, R. R. (2016). Talking Politics on Twitter: Gender, Elections, and Social Networks. Social Media and Society, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305116664218

Mellon, J., & Prosser, C. (2017). Twitter and Facebook are not representative of the general population: Political attitudes and demographics of british social media users. Research and Politics, 4(3), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168017720008

Michael, K. S. (2019). Wearing your heart on your sleeve: the surveillance of women’s souls in evangelical Christian modesty culture. Feminist Media Studies, 19(8), 1129–1143. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2018.1490915

Molnár, A., & Urbanovics, A. (2020). The role of e-democracy in Italy and Hungary. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 14(3), 545–560. https://doi.org/10.1108/TG-01-2020-0010

Munt, S. R. (2017). Argumentum ad misericordiam: the cultural politics of victim media. Feminist Media Studies, 17(5), 866–883. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2016.1259176

Nacher, A. (2021). #BlackProtest from the web to the streets and back: Feminist digital activism in Poland and narrative potential of the hashtag. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 28(2), 260–273. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506820976900

Nelson, I. L. (2017). Interspecies care and aging in a gorilla 2.0 world. Geoforum, 79, 144–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2016.02.007

Nelson, M. R., Ham, C. D., Haley, E., & Chung, U. C. (2021). How Political Interest and Gender Influence Persuasion Knowledge, Political Information Seeking, and Support for Regulation of Political Advertising in Social Media. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 21(3), 225–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2021.1978352

Norocel, O. C. (2018). Antifeminist and “truly liberated”: Conservative performances of gender by women politicians in Hungary and Romania. Politics and Governance, 6(3), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v6i3.1417

O’Byrne, W. I., & Hale, J. (2018). Employing digital spaces to resist harmful discourses: intersections of learning, technology, and politics showing up in the lowcountry. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(4), 390–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2018.1498351

Pedersen, D. B., Grønvad, J. F., & Hvidtfeldt, R. (2020). Methods for mapping the impact of social sciences and humanities—A literature review. Research Evaluation, 29(1), 4–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/RESEVAL/RVZ033

Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2019). Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning. Cognition, 188(September 2017), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011

Pitcher, A., & Sanches, E. (2019). The Paradox of Isabel dos Santos State Capitalism, Dynastic Politics, and Gender Hostility in a Resource- Rich, Authoritarian Country. Cahiers d’Études Africaines, LIX, (2), 1–7. https://doi.org/http://hdl.handle.net/10451/38191

Pizarro-Sirera, M. (2020). Toxic masculinity in american politics: Donald trump’s tweeting activity in the us presidential election (2016). European Journal of American Culture, 39(2), 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1386/ejac_00021_1

Pompl, S., & Gherghina, S. (2019). Messages and Familiar Faces: Crowdfunding in the 2017 U.K. Electoral Campaign. Politics and Policy, 47(3), 436–463. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12301

Pruchniewska, U. (2019). “A group that’s just women for women”: Feminist affordances of private Facebook groups for professionals. New Media and Society, 21(6), 1362–1379. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818822490

Rahbari, L., Longman, C., & Coene, G. (2019). The female body as the bearer of national identity in Iran: a critical discourse analysis of the representation of women’s bodies in official online outlets. Gender, Place and Culture, 26(10), 1417–1437. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2018.1555147

Rajkhowa, A. (2021). The concept of authorial legacy in polarised debate on the ethics of social media-driven activism. Media, Culture and Society, 43(3), 561–569. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443720957888

Rheault, L., Rayment, E., & Musulan, A. (2019). Politicians in the line of fire: Incivility and the treatment of women on social media. Research and Politics, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168018816228

Ringrose, J., & Lawrence, E. (2018). Remixing misandry, manspreading, and dick pics: networked feminist humour on Tumblr. Feminist Media Studies, 18(4), 686–704. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2018.1450351

Robertson, S. P. (2008). The Qualitative Research Process as a Journey - Mapping Your Course with Qualitative Research Software. Qualitative Research Journal, 8(2), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.3316/QRJ0802081

Rodriguez Castro, L., Pavlidis, A., Kennelly, M., & Nichols, E. (2021). Sisterhood and affective politics: The CaiRollers mobilising change through roller derby in Egypt. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 24(5), 791–810. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877920987237

Romeiro, N. L., Da Silva, F. C. G., & De Andrada Sobral Brisola, A. C. C. (2018). The page tidying lyrics up as a space for deconstruction of patriarchal domination. Revista Digital de Biblioteconomia e Ciencia Da Informacao, 16(3), 317–337. https://doi.org/10.20396/rdbci.v16i3.8651276

Saluja, N., & Thilaka, N. (2020). Women Leaders and Digital Communucation: Gender Stereotyping of Female Politicians on Twitter. Journal of Content, Community and Communication, 12, 210–218. https://doi.org/10.31620/JCCC.12.20/19

Schneider, M., Lord, E., & Wilczak, J. (2021). We, too: contending with the sexual politics of fieldwork in China. Gender, Place and Culture, 28(4), 519–540. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2020.1781793

Shockley, B. (2016). Women and Political Interest in Qatar: Moving Ahead but Not Catching Up. Journal of Arabian Studies, 6(1), 53–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/21534764.2016.1192771

Shockley, B., Lari, N. A., El-Maghraby, E. A. A., & Al-Ansari, M. H. (2020). Social media usage and support for women in community leadership: Evidence from Qatar. Women’s Studies International Forum, 81(November 2018), 102374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2020.102374

Simaibang, E. W. A., & Bajari, A. (2019). The representation of male feminist on twitter the virtual ethnography study on account @Lakilakibaru. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 8(9), 1866–1872.

Sinha Roy, M. (2018). Inside/out: women’s movement and women in movements. South Asian History and Culture, 9(4), 420–434. https://doi.org/10.1080/19472498.2018.1535544

Sullivan, K. V. R. (2021). The gendered digital turn: Canadian mayors on social media. Information Polity, 26(2), 157–171. https://doi.org/10.3233/IP-200301

Sunday Grove, N. (2015). Facebook Bras and #digitalharems: Fantasies of Mimesis and the Transgressions of Aliaa Elmahdy and Amina Sboui. Globalizations, 12(6), 943–956. https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2015.1100851

Sylvia, E. A. (2021). Popularity is worth $100k: The construction of identity and the political world of social media as seen on the Circle USA. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Cultural Studies, 16(2), 11–24. https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-008X/CGP/V16I02/11-24

Theocharis, Y., Barberá, P., Fazekas, Z., & Popa, S. A. (2020). The Dynamics of Political Incivility on Twitter. SAGE Open, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020919447

Tompkins, A. B. (2014). “There’s No Chasing Involved”: Cis/Trans Relationships, “Tranny Chasers,” and the Future of a Sex-Positive Trans Politics. Journal of Homosexuality, 61(5), 766–780. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2014.870448

Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2019). Manual for VOSviwer version 1.6.10. CWTS Meaningful Metrics, (January), 1–53. Retrieved from https://www.vosviewer.com/documentation/Manual_VOSviewer_1.6.10.pdf

Vochocová, L., Štětka, V., & Mazák, J. (2016). Good girls don’t comment on politics? Gendered character of online political participation in the Czech Republic. Information Communication and Society, 19(10), 1321–1339. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1088881

Wang, Y. K., Jones, G., & Ionescu, M. C. (2021). The history and future of identity politics and popular culture in East Asia. East Asian Journal of Popular Culture, 7(2), 289–303. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1386/eapc_00054_7 Abstract

Warren, S. (2019). #YourAverageMuslim: Ruptural geopolitics of British Muslim women’s media and fashion. Political Geography, 69(May 2018), 118–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2018.12.009

Xue, H., Newman, J. I., & Du, J. (2019). Narratives, identity and community in esports. Leisure Studies, 38(6), 845–861. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2019.1640778

Yuwono, N. P. (2018). Perempuan dalam Kungkungan Budaya Politik Patriarkhis. English version entitled “Women in the Confines of Patriarchal Political Culture” MUWAZAH: Jurnal Kajian Gender, 10(2), 96-115.

Zhang, L. (2017). Fashioning the feminine self in “prosumer capitalism”: Women’s work and the transnational reselling of Western luxury online. Journal of Consumer Culture, 17(2), 184–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540515572239

How to Cite
Rahmat, A. F., Soesilo, G. B., Wijaya, A. A. M., & Klinrat, N. (2022). A Systematic Literature Review of Gender and Politics: Stereotypes of Gender in Political Zone on Social Media . MUWAZAH: Jurnal Kajian Gender, 14(1), 19-44. https://doi.org/10.28918/muwazah.v14i1.5152
Abstract viewed = 521 times
PDF downloaded = 416 times